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Chronic exposures and male fertility: the impacts of environment, diet, and drug use on spermatogenesis

J. S. Gabrielsen and C. Tanrikut



Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA



  This Article
 

  DOI/PMID:10.1111/andr.12198
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Abstract:

Several recent studies have suggested that sperm concentrations and semen quality have been decreasing over the past several

decades in many areas of the world. The etiology of these decreases is currently unknown. Acute events can have significant impacts

on spermatogenesis and are often readily identified during the male fertility evaluation. The majority of male factor infertility, however,

is idiopathic. Chronic, low-dose exposures to chemicals and nutrients are more difficult to identify, but are extremely prevalent.

These exposures have been shown to have dramatic effects on both individual and community health and interest in the cumulative

and synergistic impacts of such agents on spermatogenesis has been increasing. While our understanding of these potential hazards

is evolving, it is clear that they may significantly influence male reproductive potential. This review explores the literature related to

effects of chronic exposures from drug use, dietary intake, and the environment on spermatogenesis in humans and animals.


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